Northern Bulgaria, lying between the Danube and the ridge of Stara Planina, corresponds to the area of the former Roman Province – Moesia Minor. To the south of it lay Thrace, and to the north Dacia. Despite the barbaric invasions in the 3rd century, Mezja, until the creation of Bulgaria in 681 r., it remained part of the Eastern Roman Empire. Pliska and Presław are situated in this land, historical capitals of the First Bulgarian State and Veliko Tarnovo – capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire. During the five centuries of Turkish rule, Ruse and Vidin were the northern strongholds of the Ottoman Empire. Much later, at the time of the Bulgarian national revival, famous monasteries were built: Preobrazhensky and Trojanski. During the Russo-Turkish War in 1877-1878 the great battles at Pleven and on the Shipka Pass decided the fate of modern Bulgaria.
For tourists traveling from Romania, Northern Bulgaria is the gateway to the country. Many people choose to cross the border at the Friendship Bridge in Ruse, while a more practical solution is to use the Calafat-Vidin ferry. Stara Planina has excellent conditions for mountain climbing. In general, it is worth visiting this region of Bulgaria.
For almost half a century, the city was called Tolbukhin, in honor of Soviet General Fyodor Tolbukhin, who commanded the troops of the 3rd Ukrainian Front. Russian troops were also here in the years 1877-1878. Poles fought in both armies, but they were rarely remembered, by putting up monuments. Currently, the old name Dobrich has been restored, originating, like the whole land of Dobruja, from the name of the boyar Dobroticz, who wields the legacy of his brother Balik. There is an architectural open-air museum near the square, with old craft workshops and folk taverns.
To the southeast of Dobrich there is the village of Obrocziszte, boasting one of the oldest Mohammedan monasteries in Europe. There is a tomb inside the building, where the last Turkish saint is buried, Ak-Azał-Baba.
Five kilometers from the city on the route from Dobrich, at the place where Asparuch's troops passed, the founder of the Bulgarian state, the statue of the horsemen of the khan rises. On the site of the Thracian settlement in the 1st-2nd century. Emperor Trajan built a "strong fortress”, that is, Durostorum. The 11th Roman legion was stationed here. The Byzantines stormed after the Romans, calling the city from the Greek Dorostolon, a od VII do X w. was known as Drystyr (also Dristra). Then, for centuries, Silistra passed from the hands of the Byzantines to the hands of the Bulgarian tsars, until finally the Turks chased both of them away.
Roman fortifications have been preserved, 4th c. tomb. with frescoes depicting portraits of the dead. In the former Turkish fortress on the hill there is the Archaeological Museum with finds from the area of Silistry (cannonballs, rydwan centurionów). There is also a medieval Turkish clock tower and an Orthodox church.
LAKE OF SILVER
West of Silistry, between the village of Srebyrna and the Danube, Lake Srebyrna lies, Nature Reserve, entered on the UNESCO list. It nests over here 160 species of water and marsh birds, m.in. a rare pink and white curly pelican.
It is situated on the Danube river on a hill surrounded by vineyards. It is an important fishing port. The Romans built the Transmarisca stronghold here, then it was taken over and strengthened by the Byzantines, finally, Turkish troops were stationed here for five centuries, guarding the passage across the Danube. There are romantic folk wine bars and garden cafes.
It is situated on the Beli Łom River. Around town, which the Romans called Abrittus, the fortified walls of the camp have survived, fragments of public utility buildings and residential houses. There is also a medieval clock tower and erected in 1614 r. huge mosque, with frescoes decorating the walls.
City surroundings – Popowo, Sadina, Lubien, so named in honor of the Lublin hussars, who defended the village from the Turks – were the site of many fights and skirmishes of Polish troops fighting in the Russian army in the war with Turkey.
Hussars from Lublin
After the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878 r., in which tens of thousands of Polish soldiers took part, and more Poles died near Pleven than at Varna in 1444 r., the families of the fallen set off for free Bulgaria, to take the remains of their loved ones back to their homeland. Mourners walked to the battlefields of Biała and Popowo, on the river Czerni Łom, near Sadowa and near the village of Bekerin-Enikoy. But they found the graves well-kept near Bekerin-Enikoy, with crosses, manicured by someone's caring hand.
8 Lublin Hussars Regiment, formed in the Lublin governorate, he pushed from the Danube. Popowo seemed to be an impregnable fortress. The shepherd diado Keno from the village of Bekerin-Enikoy showed the Poles the way from the east, where there were no ramparts. The Hussars captured Popowo, and then they left them, because the Russian commanders ordered a retreat. Then the inhabitants of Lublen came to the Polish hussars with the news, that the Turks are burning their village, they murder people. Polish people, against the strategic plans of the Russians, they attacked the Turks and recaptured the village. The Turks returned soon and the Hussars fought heavy battles again. Second Lieutenant Michał Baranowski from Lublin was killed, Antoni Zawiszyński, Maciasz soldiers, Penny and so many others… Their names appear on the monument erected between Sadina and Lublen. Lubien – Bulgarian transcription of the name Lublin – to ta bioska Bekerin-Enikoy.
It is situated in a valley on the Wrana River. The road to the climatic health resort of Omurtag leads through the Tyrgowicka Pass. There are caves behind the pass near the village of Lulaka. There are small towns to the south, architectural open-air museums: Koteł and Żerawna. Established in the 16th century. Kot et is famous for its kilims. The wooden buildings are in the style of the Bulgarian National Revival. Koteł is the Bulgarian word for "cauldron”. The name comes from the sources, whose water is bubbling like a kettle. The oldest wooden houses in Żerawna, with domed roofs and ornate door and window frames and carved ceilings, built in the 17th century. The buildings are built on stone foundations and stone walls, in which there are heavy gates, are surrounded by individual farms. Albena was from Żerawna, the heroine of the novel by Jordan Jowkow, also born in this village. „… As she walked, everyone was holding their breath… it was emanating a mysterious charm, which permeated and intoxicated. This woman was full of sin, but she was beautiful.” Jordan Jowkov's family home now houses the Ethnographic Museum. Albena lived somewhere nearby.