History of Bulgaria

The earliest man appeared in the present lands of Bulgaria in the Middle Paleolithic era (from 100 000 do 40 000 r. p.n.e.). Cave bears lived then, hyenas and lions, as well as mammoths and rhinoceros. The mountain ranges were covered by a glacier. Neanderthals inhabited the caves and grottos of Stara Planina, they were already using flint tools, they were collecting and hunting. Homo sapiens was laboriously producing bone tools, he set flint hatchets on a wooden handle, dressed in necklaces of shells and animal teeth, he worshiped a mother woman (as the only social cell at that time were matriarchal families), he believed in deities, he performed funeral rites throughout history from 40 000 do 12 000, that is, in the era of the Younger Paleolithic. He left traces of his stay in the Baczo Kiro and Devetashkata Pecheria caves. He developed his intelligence in the Neolithic, the Younger Stone Age, falling on years from 6000 do 2300 p.n.e., as evidenced by the finds in Kremikowce. He then used copper tools, without giving up the stone yet, and was engaged in agriculture, and he took refuge in tells, residential hills. He grew crops, he ground them on burrs, he was sticking pots, which he decorated with white or black geometric motifs. A settlement from that period, the oldest, discovered in the village of Karanowo near Nowa Zagora.

About 2600 r. p.n.e. a wave of Indo-European peoples came, called Protoindo-Europeans or Old Europeans, and also Pratracti, which the ancient Greeks knew and called the Pelasgians. People of this culture buried the dead in a shrunken position and covered them with ocher. Indo-European peoples have just mixed up with the Pratracies, arrived around 1900 r. p.n.e. from the areas on the Black Sea. Byli to Armeni, Frygowie, Greeks, Macedonians, Illyrians, Dako-Mezowie…

There was the Early Bronze Age. The then inhabitants of the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula, today's Bulgaria, they were already breeding horses (Homer Trakow called "horse breeders”), considered sacred animals. And they had neighbors Illyrians to the west, and Macedonians and Epiroths to the west. The Greeks lived beyond the lands of these peoples. The heroes of the Iliad and the Odyssey will often ally with fellow Thracians and Phrygs, when, in a gust of Homeric anger, they desire to crush their enemies to the dust. The more sensible Trojans will enter into trade agreements with the Thracians.

After the Bronze Age, comes the Iron Age (IX-VI w. p.n.e.). The Thracians need him badly, for behold, the Scits rush into their lands, nomadic Iranian people, and they stay, moving slowly towards today's Romania. On the hills of the Thracian lands, they arise in the 10th to 5th centuries BC. defensive fortresses. Aristocracy, warriors and chiefs, have iron weapons and gold ornaments. They come to the Thracian Black and Aegean coasts, starting from the 7th century. p.n.e., Ionian, Dorians and Aeolians, establishing commercial establishments, which quickly become cities, fest is already Black Sea Apollonia (Sozopol), Anchial (Pomorie), Messembria (Nose brush), Odessos (Color) and Dionisopolis (Balchik). The Trakai gain salt in trade, wine, olive oil, tools and weapons, and the Greeks, corn, cattle, honey, the skin, dried fish, wood and tar, and slaves.

W V w. p.n.e. the Thracian states arise. W 512 r. p.n.e. eastern Thrace was conquered by the Persian king Darius. When the Greeks routed the Persians at Plataea, 479 r. p.n.e., Odrysia's Thracian tribe conquers neighboring tribes, creating a strong state. King Sytaltes is already minting his own coin, introduces laws, organizes state administration. W IV w. p.n.e. the Odryzów country crumbles into small princes, to fall prey to King Philip II of Macedon, father of Alexander the great. Philip founds the city of Philipopolis on the Hebros River (Plovdiv on Maritsa). The Thracians started an uprising (331-330 r. p.n.e.), but it was suppressed by Alexander the Great. His commander Lysimachus took control of Thrace, which, after the next uprising, was in fact getting rid of Macedonian sovereignty, but succumbs to the Celts (They founded the Tylis family near today's Kazanłyk), and after being pushed away by the Thracian tribes of Bess and Odrysia, he again returns to the kingdom of Macedon.

W 168 r. p.n.e. in the battle of Pydma Macedonia will be defeated by the Roman commander Lucius Emilius Paullus, a 20 years later, the Roman province of Macedonia is established. W 73 r. p.n.e. Marek Lukullus subjugated the militant Thracian tribes of Bess and Odryzów. Thrace is part of the Roman Empire. Trakowie kilkakrotnie organizują powstania przeciw Rzymowi (from 6 do 26 r. neither.), but eventually in 46 r. neither., during the reign of Emperor Claudius, their lands are administered by the Romans as their provinces. North of Stara Planina, they formed the Roman province of Moesia, and to the south – Roman Thrace. It is customary for the Romans to build roads, and with them mansiones, i.e. stations, and cities. They do not meddle in matters of religion or morals – I guess, to assimilate them. They built Bonnonia in Moesia (Widin), Novae (near Svishtov), Ratiarię (Arczar), amus (Crowbar), Iscar (Gigs) i in.

The Moesia was plagued by the Thracian Dak tribe (in today's Romania). He subjugated them in 106 r. neither. Emperor Trajan, creating the Roman province of Dacia. W 170 r. an uprising breaks out in Moesia, the barbarian Kostobok tribe appears, then the Goths burst in. In the battle with the latter, St. 251 r. Emperor Decius. From now on, the barbarian tribes would continue to press against the frontiers of the Roman Empire. W 330 r. Emperor Constantine the Great moved the capital of the empire to Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople. W 378 r. Emperor Valens fell at Adrianople in the fight against the Visigoths, whom he himself invited to settle in Scythia. Theodosius the Great defeated them, ruler in 395 r. on his deathbed, he divided the empire into two parts: Eastern Roman, called Byzantine, and Western Roman, still called Roman. Bulgarian lands came under the administration of the Byzantine Empire. W 442 i 447 r. Attila's Huns roamed the Balkans, burning the Roman cities. They scattered after the death of their ruler, St. 453 r., absorbed by the indigenous element. The Ostrogoths soon arrived, to create a strong state between Stara Planina and the Danube, with its capital in Novae, and to move at the head of his leader Alaric, w 489 r., for the Italian state.

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