Cities on the Danube

Mysterious, wild, menacing and beautiful – and then probably also the blue ones – The Danube fascinated the ancient Greeks and terrified the barbarians, but not so much, lest they endanger the peoples on the other side. W VII w. p.n.e. curious sailors from Miletus reached the Iron Gates, then the practical Hellenes established colonies and trade establishments. Anticipating Romans created fortified camps and built fortresses, shielding the empire from the north. Bononia was founded, Ratiaria, Almus, Cebrus, Iscar, Nicopolis, We believe, Novae, Iatrus, sixty Prista, Transmarisca i Durostorum. The Danube Line has long been the frontier of the Roman Empire. When the empire fell apart, Roman fortresses were taken over by the insatiable Byzantines, and finally the fortifications were rebuilt by godly Turks, separating oneself from the giaurs from Europe.


Originally it was a Thracian settlement, then the Romans built the important port of Ratiaria, w 29 r. p.n.e. Crassus arrived with the thirteenth Roman legion, about 70 r. Emperor Trajan built the Colonia Ulpia Traiana Ratiaria fortress, which was carried away by the Slavic tribes, before they settled there. Its ruins remain.


Today, the second largest fishing port, was founded in the 2nd century. p.n.e. Almus claim, and then an important port. Ancient finds – tombstones, everyday items, busts, marble heads of Sylven, amazonek i Wenery – is kept by the municipal museum.
The Cebrus stronghold used to be in the nearby Górni Cibir.


He came to Kozloduy 16 May 1876 r. Austrian ship "Radetzki” with a group of 200 insurgents on board, which broke through from Romania. The Bulgarian freedom fighter repeated the action of Zygmunt Miłkowski (literary pseudonym T.T. Hedgehog). A Pole hijacked a Greek ship and got to the Romanian bank of the Danube, to rush with his unit to help those fighting in the January Uprising. Miłkowski's venture failed, because the Romanian authorities did not allow an armed group to march through their country. Botew was accompanied by Mikołaj Wojnowski in the successful operation (he, too, developed part of the plan), who later fell in battle with the Turks in the mountains of Stara Planina. At the place where the insurgents land, there is a Botew monument.
Waterfowl and marsh birds live on the Danube islands, cranes, pelikany i czaple.


During Roman times, the Romans set up on this site, on the highest escarpment on the bank of the Danube (226 m n.p.m.), observation point. There are Turkish houses from the 18th and 19th centuries. and the church of St.. Theotokos with precious old icons.


Inhabitants of the. p.n.e. fortified camp (the 5th Macedonian Legion was stationed here), then cities, in which already in 328 r. a bridge over the Danube was thrown in length 1150 m, wood, but with stone pillars, they must have had a good time, watching the Achaeans, a comedy by the Greek writer Menander who lived at the turn of the 4th and 3rd centuries. p.n.e. In our time, a mosaic floor with scenes from this comedy was found. Anyway in Oescus, from where, moreover, he led a trade route to Filipopolis (Plovdiv), there were also great temples, public utility buildings, termas. We can discuss the crumbs of this bygone world in the local museum.


Bulgaria is overwhelming with its antiquity… Oto Nicopolis – city ​​of victory - a fortress founded by the Byzantines. A tombstone with an epitaph for a Roman woman has been preserved, because earlier than Heraclius, the Byzantine emperor, Emperor Trajan created a fortified camp. And before the Romans, there was something else built by the cunning Hellenes… Eventually, Nikopol was taken over by the Turks of the Bulgarian tsars. Ivan Shishman struggled with them on the battlefields, and later Władysław Warneńczyk.
Among the finds are architectural fragments, sculptures, statue of Eros, head of the emperor from the 3rd century, fountain from the 3rd-5th century, as well as the remains of a 13th-century church and the famous Turkish fortress Bachtabia Kale.


And here were the Romans, and founded the stronghold of Dimus. They even had a customs house. Near the town, the river branches out in width 4 km and length 10 km, then connects again, creating the muddy island of Persin, the largest on the Danube. It is a refuge for water and marsh birds and turtles.


A lot happened in Szwisztów in the last century – it was noisy, as busy and mysteriously romantic as on the famous Orient Express train from Vienna to Istanbul. There was something left of that atmosphere… There are two wonderful 17th-century churches here, st. Dimitri (1640 r.) and St.. Peter and Paul (1644 r.), decorated with murals, with stunning iconostases and lots of old icons, turkish clock tower z 1760 r., beautiful Orthodox church of the Holy Trinity built by the brilliant Circle of Ficzet, self-taught about "golden hands."”.
Aleko Konstantinov was born here, creator of the immortal character Baj Ganja, which brings together a set of negative qualities, however, recognized as binding attitudes, as in the case of our Mrs. Dulska.
By presenting this city, it is impossible to ignore the Huns, Ready, Romans, Slavs, The Byzantines… Everyone in their time crossed the Danube back and forth, where Novae used to be…


From 1960 r. For many years, archaeologists and scientists from Poznań and Warsaw conducted excavations in this area, who unveiled a great Roman city from the first century of our first millennium. At the beginning, a stronghold guarding the Danube crossing, w V w. it flourished with a populous city of approx 30 ha.
Maybe it's a pity, that Julius Caesar, instead of breaking feathers over Gaul, that is omnia divida in partes tres, or rush to Egypt, he did not cross the Rhine then, or at least the Danube, and did not proceed towards the dense forests, where the tur slogan…